Ancient Egypt Encyclopedia

Egyptian Gods - The Complete List

Egyptian Gods - The Complete List

The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt were an integral part of the people's everyday lives. It is not surprising then that there were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. Some of these deities' names are well known: Isis, Osiris, Horus, Amun, Ra, Hathor, Bastet, Thoth, Anubis, and Ptah while many others less so. The more famous gods became state deities while others were associated with a specific region or, in some cases, a ritual or role. The goddess Qebhet, for example, is a little known deity who offered cool water to the souls of the dead as they awaited judgment in the afterlife, and Seshat was the goddess of written words and specific...

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Ancient Egyptian Timeline

Ancient Egyptian Timeline

Before 3100 BCE Predynastic Period Historic events Egypt divided into Upper and Lower Egypt Art movements Hieroglyphic writing created Two-dimensional imagery and symbolism established Grid system to regulate proportions established Painted pottery and figurines, ivory carvings, slate cosmetic palettes Relief design developed from drawing High quality and richly designed ceramics 3100-2686 BCE Early Dynastic Period, Dynasties 1-2 Historic events 3100 BCE - Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by the first pharaoh Menes Memphis is capital city The strong central government supports the work of scribes, sculptors, and other artists and encourages new artistic methods. Art movements The Step Pyramid...

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Late Period of Ancient Egypt

Late Period of Ancient Egypt

This head was part of a statue which was placed in a temple. No inscription survives to identify the king, but stylistic details point to Nectanebo I or II, the principal kings of Egypt's last native Dynasty. The king's nose and protective cobra on his forehead was destroyed to curse him. Perhaps this vengeful act occurred when Egypt, after 60 years of independence, was reconquered by Persians (31st Dynasty). A new nose and cobra were later fitted in prepared slots. This may have happened soon after Alexander the Great had conquered the Persian Empire, under the early Ptolemies. To bolster...

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Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

by Brigitte Djajasasmita The ruins of Tanis, capital of Egypt during the Third Intermediate Period. The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) is the era following the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-c.1069 BCE) and preceding the Late Period (c.525-332 BCE). Egyptian history was divided into eras of 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate periods' by Egyptologists of the late 19th century CE to clarify the country's history, but were not used by the ancient Egyptians themselves. The term 'kingdom' is used to define an era of strong central government while 'intermediate period' designates a time of disunity and divided rule. In the First Intermediate Period of Egypt (2181-2040 BCE) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782-1570...

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New Kingdom of Egypt

New Kingdom of Egypt

A granite monument depicting the god Amun, Ramesses II, and the goddess Mut. Dynasty XIX, 1279-1213 BCE. Temple of Amun, Thebes. (Egyptian Museum, Turin, Italy) The New Kingdom (c. 1570- c.1069 BCE) is the era in Egyptian history following the disunity of the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782-1570 BCE) and preceding the dissolution of the central government at the start of the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-c. 525 BCE). This is the time of Imperial Egypt when it became an empire. It is the most popular era in Egyptian history in the present day with the best known pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty such as Hatshepsut, Thuthmoses III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, those...

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