The BCE timeline includes several key timelines, such as the Egyptian Dynasty Timeline, Ancient Egypt Timeline, Egyptian Empire Timeline, and Egyptian Dynasties Timeline, each offering unique insights into the ancient world.

Ancient Egypt Timeline

The BCE timeline includes several key timelines, such as the Egyptian Dynasty Timeline, Ancient Egypt Timeline, Egyptian Empire Timeline, and Egyptian Dynasties Timeline, each offering unique insights into the ancient world.

The following table highlights key moments in ancient Egypt's timeline, focusing on design and technology:

Time Period Event / Discovery Description / Significance
Predynastic Period (c. 6000-3100 BCE) Pottery and ceramics The development of pottery and ceramics allowed for more efficient food storage and artistic expression.
Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100-2686 BCE) Invention of hieroglyphics The creation of hieroglyphics revolutionized communication and record-keeping, enabling the preservation of knowledge and history.
Old Kingdom (c. 2686-2181 BCE) Pyramids and monumental architecture The construction of the Great Pyramids of Giza and other monumental structures showcased advanced engineering and architectural techniques.
First Intermediate Period (c. 2181-2055 BCE) Artistic innovation During this period, artists began to experiment with new materials, techniques, and styles, resulting in more detailed and diverse artwork.
Middle Kingdom (c. 2055-1650 BCE) Advancements in literature The Middle Kingdom saw the emergence of more complex literature, including religious texts, wisdom literature, and poetry.
Second Intermediate Period (c. 1650-1550 BCE) Hyksos invasion The Hyksos introduced new technologies, such as the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot, which had a significant impact on Egyptian warfare.
New Kingdom (c. 1550-1070 BCE) Expansion of empire and art The New Kingdom saw significant advancements in art and design, including frescoes, intricate jewelry, and monumental temples, such as those at Karnak and Luxor.
Third Intermediate Period (c. 1070-664 BCE) Decline of centralized power This period saw a decline in monumental construction and a shift towards smaller-scale artwork and craft production.
Late Period (c. 664-332 BCE) Introduction of new technologies Foreign invasions and trade relationships during the Late Period introduced new technologies, such as glassmaking and advanced metallurgy.
Greco-Roman Period (c. 332 BCE-395 CE) Hellenistic influence The fusion of Egyptian and Greco-Roman culture resulted in the creation of new architectural styles, art forms, and technologies.

This table provides an overview of the key milestones in ancient Egyptian design and technology, showcasing the civilization's innovation and creativity throughout its history.

The following is a timeline showing the dates, periods, dynasties and significant events in the history and art of ancient Egypt from the Predynastic Period (before 3100 BCE) to the end of the Roman Period (395 CE).

  • Historic events

    Egypt divided into Upper and Lower Egypt

    Art movements

    Hieroglyphic writing created

    Two-dimensional imagery and symbolism established

    Grid system to regulate proportions established

    Painted pottery and figurines, ivory carvings, slate cosmetic palettes

    Relief design developed from drawing

    High quality and richly designed ceramics


  • Early Dynastic Period, Dynasties 1-2

    Historic events

    3100 BCE - Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by the first pharaoh Menes

    Memphis is capital city

    The strong central government supports the work of scribes, sculptors, and other artists and encourages new artistic methods.

    Art movements

    The Step Pyramid (first pyramid) for King Djoser constructed at Giza

    Conventions of three-dimensional art established

    Special royal iconography used to express ideologies of kingship

    Scale of figures in artwork is used to symbolise status

    Symbolic positions of seated and standing figures established

    Depiction of nude enemies stripped of status


  • Old Kingdom, Dynasties 3-6

    Historic events

    6th Dynasty – Collapse of the central government leads to local art styles developing

    Art movements

    First images and forms of art that endured for 3000 years

    Painting develops

    Large numbers of pyramids constructed

    4th Dynasty – Great Sphinx and Great Pyramids built at Giza

    5th Dynasty – Decoration inside pyramids introduced

    5-6th Dynasty – mortuary chapels expanded to allow walls to be decorated

    Stelae appear

    Statues of kings placed in pyramid temples as part of the royal cult.

    5th Dynasty – potter’s wheel invented

    Gods depicted with broad shoulders and low smalls of their backs

    Formalised nude figures with long, slender bodies, idealised proportions and large staring eyes


  • First Intermediate Period

    Historic events

    Egypt splits into two smaller states: ruled by Memphis in the north and Thebes in the south. This civil disorder lasts for 150 years.

    Art movements

    Regional art styles develop


  • Middle Kingdom, Dynasties 11-13

    Historic events

    Mentuhotep reunites Egypt

    First obelisks erected at Heliopolis by Seusret I

    11th Dynasty – God Amun-Ra rises to prominence and becomes a centre of cult at Thebes

    Art movements

    New emphasis is placed on the King as the child of a divine pair.

    Technology to smelt and cast bronze develops and statues flourish

    Women begin to appear in individual portraits

    People lower in social rankings began to commission statues, causing a large variation of quality

    Coffins imitating body form appear

    Shabtis appear

    Canopic jars with heads sculpted in human form appear

    Key piece


  • Second Intermediate Period

    Historic events

    Egypt falls to Near Eastern rulers - Hyksos - who seize power of the north.

    11th Dynasty – Egypt unified again

    Art movements

    Egyptian art declines and is relatively crude

    A reversion to traditional models from Memphis in the Early Dynastic Period

    Figures have small heads, narrow shoulders and waists, slender limbs and no visible musculature.


  • New Kingdom, Dynasties 18-20

    Historic events

    1470 BCE - Rule of the first female pharaoh Hatshepsut

    1350 BCE - Ahkenaten rules and attempts to introduce the worship of a single god

    1334 BCE - Tutankhanum rules

    1290 BCE - Rameses II rules

    Political stability and economic prosperity, supporting the abundance of artistic masterpieces

    Art movements

    Ahkenaten adopts the ‘Amarna’ style of art, characterised by movement and activity in images as well as faces shown in profile and distinctly feminine forms

    Elaborate hidden tombs in the Valley of the Kings created

    A middle class comprised of independent craftsmen and artisans develops

    Highest quality workmanship, colossal sizes, rich materials used

    Durable materials such as sandstone, basalt and granite widely used

    A new sculpture introduced – owner kneeling, holding a stelae with a hymn to the sun

    Feminine dress becomes more elaborate; men and women wear large heavy wigs with multiple tresses and braids

    More painted scenes in rock-cut tombs than carved relief scenes

    19th Dynasty – Canopic jars now have heads of baboons, jackals, falcons and humans

    Large-scale battle scenes in temple decorations


  • Third Intermediate Period

    Historic events

    Egypt again falls under Nubian and Lybian rule

    Art movements

    Bronze sculpting reaches its height

    Many statues are richly inlaid with gold and silver

    Kushite fold (the facial ‘smile’ line from the nose to the mouth)

    Nubians depicted with dark skin and hooped earrings, braided hair


  • Late Period, Dynasties 26-30

    Historic events

    Egypt regains the throne

    Art movements

    Stylistics developments of the New Kingdom discarded and older models are looked to for inspiration, particularly styles from the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom

    Standards for the king and elite are at an extraordinary high level

    The development of iron tools allow artisans to work on very hard stones

    Bronze statuary common and technically finer and bronze casting now a major industry

    Minor arts, such as alabaster vases, faience pottery, glass, ivories and metalwork flourish


  • Ptolemaic Period

    Historic events

    Alexander the Great conquers Egypt and his general, Ptolemy, founds a dynasty.

    Cleopatra dies in 30 BCE and Egypt becomes a province of the Roman Empire

    Art movements

    Colossal statues grace temple pylons along with sphinxes

    New type of voluptuousness in female forms

    High, smoothly rounded and heavily-modelled relief styles


  • Roman Period

    Historic events

    The adoption of Christianity as the official religion of Egypt

    Art movements

    4-5th Century CE – art decorated with pagan and Christian themes

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Recommended Reading: Further Explorations of Ancient Egypt

Books on Ancient Egyptian History and Culture

  1. "The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt" by Ian Shaw
  2. "The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt" by Richard H. Wilkinson
  3. "Temples, Tombs, and Hieroglyphs: A Popular History of Ancient Egypt" by Barbara Mertz
  4. "Daily Life in Ancient Egypt" by Kasia Szpakowska

Books on Egyptian Mythology and Religion

  1. "Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt" by Geraldine Pinch
  2. "The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day" translated by Raymond Faulkner
  3. "Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt" by John H. Taylor
  4. "Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt" by Emily Teeter

Books on Egyptian Art, Architecture, and Science

  1. "The Art of Ancient Egypt: Revised Edition" by Gay Robins
  2. "The Secret of the Great Pyramid: How One Man's Obsession Led to the Solution of Ancient Egypt's Greatest Mystery" by Bob Brier and Jean-Pierre Houdin
  3. "Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression" by Earl Baldwin Smith 4. "The Science of the Pyramids" by Joseph Davidovits

Books on Personal Growth

  1. "The Wisdom of the Egyptians: The Story of the Egyptians, the Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, the Ptah-Hotep and the Ke'gemini, the Book of the Dead, the Wisdom of Hermes Trismegistus" by Brian Brown
  2. "The Kybalion: A Study of The Hermetic Philosophy of Ancient Egypt and Greece" by Three Initiates
  3. "Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Book of the Dead" translated by Normandi Ellis
  4. "The Ancient Egyptian Path to Enlightenment: The Teachings of Ptahhotep" by Muata Ashby

Books on Ancient Egyptian Philosophy

  1. "Egyptian Philosophy and the Ancient Wisdom Tradition: A Guide to the Secret Teachings" by Jeremy Naydler
  2. "The Egyptian Mysteries: New Light on Ancient Knowledge" by Lucie Lamy
  3. "The Hermetica: The Lost Wisdom of the Pharaohs" translated by Timothy Freke and Peter Gandy
  4. "The Teachings of Ptahhotep: The Oldest Book in the World" translated by Hilliard III Asa G.

Books on Ancient Egyptian Women and Gender

  1. "Daughters of Isis: Women of Ancient Egypt" by Joyce Tyldesley
  2. "Egyptian Women of the Old Kingdom and of the Heracleopolitan Period" by Wolfram Grajetzki
  3. "The Role of Women in Work and Society in Ancient Egypt" by Laurel Bestock
  4. "Gender and Power in Ancient Egypt: Art, Archaeology, and History" edited by Barbara S. Lesko

Books on Ancient Egyptian Medicine and Healing

  1. "Medicine in Ancient Egypt: Its Evolution from the Predynastic Period to the Graeco-Roman Era" by Abdel Ghaffar Shedid and Abdel Maguid Mohamed Salem
  2. "The Healing Gods of Ancient Civilizations: Egyptian, Greek, and Roman" by Walter Addison Jayne
  3. "Ancient Egyptian Medicine" by John F. Nunn
  4. "Egyptian Healing: The Philosophy and Practice of Ancient Egyptian Medicine" by Hakim M. Bey

Books on Ancient Egyptian Language and Writing

  1. "Hieroglyphs: The Writing of Ancient Egypt" by Maria Carmela Betrò
  2. "Reading Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture" by Richard H. Wilkinson
  3. "The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World" by J. P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams
  4. "The Rosetta Stone and the Rebirth of Ancient Egypt" by John Ray

Books on Ancient Egyptian Science and Technology

  1. "Egyptian Science and Technology: Ancient Texts and Modern Science" edited by Mohamed El-Bahey and Nagwa El-Badry
  2. "A History of Ancient Egypt: From the First Farmers to the Great Pyramid" by John Romer
  3. "The Dawn of Astronomy: A Study of the Temple-Worship and Mythology of the Ancient Egyptians" by J. Norman Lockyer
  4. "Engineering the Pyramids" by Dick Parry

Books on Modern Applications of Ancient Egyptian Wisdom

  1. "The Egyptian Book of Living and Dying: The Enlightened Way of the Pharaohs" by Joann Fletcher
  2. "The Way of the Egyptian Mystics: Ancient Egyptian Mystical Traditions for Modern Seekers" by Muata Ashby
  3. "The Power of Ancient Symbols: How to Use Sacred Symbols to Connect with the Universe, Activate Your Inner Wisdom, and Manifest Your Desires" by Egyptologist Tamara L. Siuda
  4. "The Egyptian Tarot" by Clive Barrett