Ancient Egypt Encyclopedia — The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt

Late Period of Ancient Egypt

Late Period of Ancient Egypt

This head was part of a statue which was placed in a temple. No inscription survives to identify the king, but stylistic details point to Nectanebo I or II, the principal kings of Egypt's last native Dynasty. The king's nose and protective cobra on his forehead was destroyed to curse him. Perhaps this vengeful act occurred when Egypt, after 60 years of independence, was reconquered by Persians (31st Dynasty). A new nose and cobra were later fitted in prepared slots. This may have happened soon after Alexander the Great had conquered the Persian Empire, under the early Ptolemies. To bolster...

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Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt

by Brigitte Djajasasmita The ruins of Tanis, capital of Egypt during the Third Intermediate Period. The Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525 BCE) is the era following the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-c.1069 BCE) and preceding the Late Period (c.525-332 BCE). Egyptian history was divided into eras of 'kingdoms' and 'intermediate periods' by Egyptologists of the late 19th century CE to clarify the country's history, but were not used by the ancient Egyptians themselves. The term 'kingdom' is used to define an era of strong central government while 'intermediate period' designates a time of disunity and divided rule. In the First Intermediate Period of Egypt (2181-2040 BCE) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782-1570...

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New Kingdom of Egypt

New Kingdom of Egypt

A granite monument depicting the god Amun, Ramesses II, and the goddess Mut. Dynasty XIX, 1279-1213 BCE. Temple of Amun, Thebes. (Egyptian Museum, Turin, Italy) The New Kingdom (c. 1570- c.1069 BCE) is the era in Egyptian history following the disunity of the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782-1570 BCE) and preceding the dissolution of the central government at the start of the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-c. 525 BCE). This is the time of Imperial Egypt when it became an empire. It is the most popular era in Egyptian history in the present day with the best known pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty such as Hatshepsut, Thuthmoses III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, those...

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Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

This is one of just a few surviving royal statues from the late Second Intermediate Period, when southern Egypt was ruled from Thebes. Two of its kings had the birth name of Sobekemsaf, but their order and chronological potions remain disputed. Sculpture from this period is often crude and highly stylized, a faint echo of masterpieces created two centuries earlier. The King's waist, for instance, is much too narrow. However, his eyes received exceptional attention. Dowel holes in the brows and cosmetic lines helped to secure inlaid eyes and as well as overlays. The pupils, for instance, were probably made...

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Middle Kingdom of Egypt

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin  In this ophicalcite statue, only the upper half of a seated figure of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhat III has survived. Probably from Faiyum, modern-day Egypt. Middle Kingdom, 12 Dynasty, circa 1800 BCE. (State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany). The Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which it produced some of its greatest works of art and literature. Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom as some argue for the later half of the 11th through the 12th, some the 12th to 14th, and some the 12th and 13th. The 12th Dynasty...

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